Instructor: Dr. Clare Hays, SI 2032; 303-556-8485, e-mail - email@example.com, URL http://rowdy.msudenver.edu/~haysc/public_html/
MASTERINGAANDPC.OM : Your Laboratory Manual has some excellent resources for both lecture and lab. Information about this website, www.masteringaandp.com and the access code are described at the beginning of your lab manual. You will need to complete a registration process to use this site. Notify your instructor if you do not have an access code. Especially note the excellent PAL sections.
Upon completion of lab exercises, you should complete the corresponding review sheets located in the back of your labs. Although you will not be required to hand in these exercises, they help to emphasize key concepts and are invaluable in preparing for lab exams.
Exercise 3: Review the use and care of the microscope.
Exercise 6: a) Observe the following tissue types: Simple squamous epithelium, Simple cuboidal epithelium, Simple columnar epithelium, Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, Stratified squamous epithelium, Transitional epithelium, Areolar (loose) connective tissue, Adipose tissue, Dense (fibrous) regular connective tissue, Hyaline cartilage, Bone, Nervous tissue, Skeletal muscle, Cardiac muscle, Smooth muscle.
b) Note: Seeley has some excellent histology pictures in chapter 4 as well as exercise 6B in the Physioex CD packaged with your lab manual or available at masteringaandp.com in the PAL section. Dr. Rao has some great histology photomicrographs at http://rowdy.msudenver.edu/~raoa/rao/bio3210/index.htm (See lab photomicrographs).
AUGUST 31 , SEPTEMBER 7, 14 - SKELETAL SYSTEM (ANATOMY)
Recommended time schedule:
Week 2 - Through the skull,
Week 3 - through the upper extremity,
Week 4 - finish and review.
Exercise 9: Read in preparation of skeletal anatomy.
Exercise 10: AXIAL SKELETON - You are responsible for the following:
FRONTAL (1), Supraorbital foramen, Glabella, PARIETAL (2), Sagittal suture, Coronal suture, TEMPORAL (2), Squamousal suture, Zygomatic process, Mandibular fossa, External auditory meatus, Styloid process, Mastoid process, Stylomastoid foramen, Jugular foramen, Carotid canal, Internal acoustic meatus, OCCIPITAL (1), Lambdoidal suture, Foramen magnum, Occipital condyles, Hypoglossal canal, External occipital crest and protuberance, SPHENOID (1), Greater wings, Superior orbital fissures, Sella turcica, Lesser wings, Optic foramina or canal, Foramen rotundum, Foramen ovale, Foramen lacerum, ETHMOID (1), Crista galli, Cribriform plates with olfactory foramina, Perpendicular plate, Superior and medial nasal conchae (turbinates).
MANDIBLE (1), Body, Rami (sing. ramus), Mandibular condyle, Coronoid process, Angle, Mental foramina, Mandibular foramen, Alveolar margin, Mandibular symphysis, MAXILLA (2), Alveolar margin, Palatine processes, Infraorbital foramen, PALATINE (2), ZYGOMATIC (2), LACRIMAL (2), Lacrimal fossa, NASAL (2), VOMER (1), INFERIOR NASAL CONCHAE (2).
Frontal sinus, Ethmoid sinuses, Sphenoid sinus, Maxillary sinus.
TYPICAL VERTEBRA, Body, Vertebral arch, Vertebral foramen, Transverse processes, Spinous process, Superior and inferior articular processes, Intervertebral foramina, intervertebral discs, CERVICAL VERTEBRAE (7), atlas, axis, odontoid process (dens), THORACIC VERTEBRAE (12), LUMBAR VERTEBRAE (5), SACRUM (5 fused sacral vertebrae), COCCYX (3-5 fused).
STERNUM, Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid process, Jugular notch, Sternal angle, RIBS, Head, Tubercle, Costal cartilage.
Exercise 11: APPENDICULAR SKELETON:
PECTORAL GIRDLE: CLAVICLE, SCAPULA, Acromion process, coracoid process, glenoid fossa [cavity], Supraspinous fossa, Infraspinous fossa, Subscapular fossa.
PECTORAL APPENDAGE: HUMERUS, Head, Shaft, Greater and lesser tubercles, Intertubercular (bicipital) groove, Deltoid tuberosity, Trochlea, Capitulum, Medial and lateral epicondyles, Coronoid fossa, Olecranon fossa, RADIUS, Head, Radial tuberosity, Styloid process, ULNA, Coronoid process, Olecranon process, Semilunar (trochlear) notch, Styloid process, CARPAL BONES (8), METACARPALS (I-V), PHALANGES (Proximal, Middle, Distal).
PELVIC GIRDLE: OS COXA (Coxal bone), ILIUM, Sacroiliac joint, Iliac crest, Anterior superior spine, Posterior superior spine, Anterior inferior spine, Iliac fossa, ISCHIUM, Ischial tuberosity, Lesser and greater sciatic notches, PUBIS, Obturator foramen, Pubic symphysis, Rami, Acetabulum.
PELVIC APPENDAGE: FEMUR, Head, Greater and lesser trochanters, Lateral and medial condyles, Lateral and medial epicondyles, Gluteal tuberosity, Linea aspera, PATELLA, TIBIA, Medial and lateral condyles, Tibial tuberosity, Medial malleolus, FIBULA, Lateral malleolus, TARSAL BONES (7), Calcaneus, Talus, METATARSALS (I-V), PHALANGES (Proximal, Middle, Distal).
Exercise 12: Observe fontanels on the fetal skeleton.
SEPTEMBER 21 - EXAM ONE
SEPTEMBER 28 ; OCTOBER 5, 12 - MUSCULAR SYSTEM (ANATOMY)
Glance at Fig. 1.2, page 4, to understand anatomic terminology of the quadriped (cat). Recommended time schedule:
Week 6 - Through infraspinatus,
Week 7 - through quadriceps,
Week 8 - finish and review.
Exercise 14: Read section on naming skeletal muscles.
Observe a slide of skeletal muscle tissue.
Exercise 15, p. 697: There are enough cats so that every 4 people may have one cat. More than 4 people per cat makes work difficult. The cats may not leave the laboratory room! Dissect as described in your manual, but only dissect one side of the cat, its left. (This way you will still have half of a cat left for later labs.) Here are a couple of websites with nice photographs of cat muscles:
You are responsible for the following:
Cutaneous maximus, Platysma, Mylohyoid, Digastric, Masseter, Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor, Pectoantebrachialis, Rectus abdominis, Linea alba, External oblique, Internal oblique, Transversus abdominis.
Trapezius group, Levator scapulae ventralis, Deltoid group, Latissimus dorsi, Serratus ventralis (anterior), Subscapularis, Splenius, Rhomboid group, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus.
Triceps brachii (lateral, medial, long head), Brachialis, Brachioradialis, Extensor carpi radialis group, Extensor digitorum communis, Extensor digitorum lateralis, Extensor carpi ulnaris, Biceps brachii, Epitrochlearis, Pronator teres, Flexor carpi radialis, Palmaris longus, Flexor carpi ulnaris.
Fascia lata, Sartorius, Tensor fasciae latae, Gluteus medius, Gluteus maximus, Caudofemoralis, Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Peroneus muscles, Extensor digitorum longus, Tibialis anterior, Quadriceps - Vastus medialis, Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, Vastus intermedius, Gracilis, Adductor femoris, Adductor longus, Plantaris, Flexor digitorum longus, Flexor hallucis longus, External intercostals, Internal intercostals.
Muscular Physiology: You will also be expected to know the three phases of a muscle twitch (latent, contraction & relaxation). See figure 16A.3 in your lab manual
OCTOBER 19 - EXAM TWO
OCTOBER 26 - NEUROMUSCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
Use this time to complete Physioex Exercise 2 in newer lab manual and 16B in older lab manual, the Physioex Skeletal Muscle Physiology Computer simulation. You may do this exercise at home. It is due on your very next lab period when we dissect the brain. Instructions for the exercise may be found in your lab manual. The computer exercise may be found on the CD in the back of your older lab manual, or you can download it from www.mastering aandp.com. Upon completion, complete the review sheet at myaandp.com or in your lab manual. 10 points are possible for complete and accurate completion of the review sheet.
NOVEMBER 2 - ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES
Exercise 17: Observe a microscope slide of a typical neuron.
Exercise 19: Dissect the sheep brain as described starting on p. 292. You are responsible for the following structures:
Meninges: Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
Dorsal Structures: Longitudinal fissure, convolutions, cerebrum, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, corpora quadrigemina (superior and inferior colliculi).
Ventral Structures: Olfactory bulbs, optic nerves, optic chiasma, optic tracts, hypothalamus (infundibulum, mammillary body), cerebral peduncles, oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, pons, medulla oblongata, trigeminal nerve, abducens nerve, facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, accessory nerve, and hypoglossal nerve. (Note, cranial nerves IX and X are often difficult to find or missing on some of the brains.)
Internal Structures: Corpus callosum, lateral ventricle, fornix, third ventricle, thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal body, midbrain, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, cerebral peduncles, pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum.
NOVEMBER 9 - PERIPHERAL NERVES AND REFLEXES
Exercise 21, p. 715: Dissect your cat as described. Know all of the nerves mentioned of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses: Musculocutaneous nerve, Radial nerve, Median nerve, Ulnar nerve, Femoral nerve, Saphenous nerve, Sciatic nerve, Tibial nerve and Common peroneal nerve.
Exercise 22: Complete through Activity 9, but omit the "Corneal Reflex" and "Salivary Reflex".
NOVEMBER 16 - SENSORY PHYSIOLOGY
Exercise 23: Complete the exercises on Two-Point Threshold, Testing Tactile Localization, and Adaptation of Touch Receptors. Read through omitted exercises.
Exercise 24: Complete the visual experiments beginning with activity 5 (on page 371) through activity 11.
Exercise 25: Complete all of the hearing laboratory tests in activity 4, pp. 387-388 excluding audiometry.
Exercise 26: Complete the following experiments: Stimulation of Taste Buds, Effect of Olfactory Stimulation (on Taste), The Importance of Taste and Olfaction in Odor Identification, and Demonstrating Olfactory Adaptation. Name and identify the general location of the four main taste zones.
NOVEMBER 30 - EXAM THREE
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